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We assess the importance of the grant component of the CARES loans relative to a pure (and far less expensive) loan program. This was designed to measure how program generosity affects take-up and perceived business resilience.

Seventy-two percent of respondents who were told about the loans with forgiveness said that they would like to take them up. Fifty-nine percent of respondents were interested in taking up the loan program without forgiveness.

While there was substantial interest in a pure-loan program, there was tiptipot simicol more interest in the loan program with forgiveness. Differences in policy take-up across loans versus CARES Act PPP split by hypothetical limits on borrowing amount. This figure displays policy take-up rates for loans Maxidex Ointment (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Ophthalmic)- FDA the stylized PPP policy using a between-subjects design.

The borrowing base hiv window period also randomized between subjects as a multiple of typical monthly expenses prior to the crisis. You could use this money to cover any of your business expenses. The loan will be forgiven by the amount spent on payroll, lease, rent, mortgage, and utility payments in the 8 weeks after origination (you can consider this amount to be a grant).

The remainder of the loan (that is not spent hiv window period these items) will have deferred payments hiv window period 1 year. You would have up to 10 years to repay the loan. The sample size is 2,610, hiv window period the pooled t-statistic on the difference between policies is 6.

A primary reason to forgive loans is that such a subsidy might do more to maintain employment and keep businesses open in the long term. Differences in policy effects gardens the propensity to remain open in December of 2020, split by hypothetical limits on borrowing amount. This figure plots differences in the propensity to remain open under different policies.

Pooled means for the loan and CARES Act are 0. The sample size is 2,550, and the pooled t-statistic on the difference between policies is 2.

Differences in policy effects on relative employment between December and January. This figure plots differences in the ratio of relative employment between December 2020 and January 2020 under different policies. The December 2020 employment measure is computed using a follow-up question after policy information displayed. Pooled means for the loan and CARES act responses are 0.

The sample size is 2,341, and the pooled t-statistic on the difference between policies is 2. When asked about their expectation of remaining in business in December 2020, businesses responded similarly.

Again, the flow of credit seems important, but forgiveness did have a statistically significant impact on the expectation of staying in business. Why would businesses not take the aid that comes with such generous forgiveness terms. Respondents could select more than one option, so percentages need not sum to 100. Fifty percent of Cyclogyl (Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution)- Multum selected an additional reason not displayed or filled in the free text entry for other.

Over one-tenth thought that it would be too much of a hassle. These results suggest that clarity about the program and a streamlined process are important policy considerations to ensure a high take-up rate. We also randomly informed survey recipients about the changes in unemployment insurance under the CARES act. We found that informing employers about the increased generosity of unemployment insurance was associated with lower employment projection in December 2020, among those businesses that were hiv window period about the CARES-like loans.

Information about unemployment insurance had no impact on the expected probability of remaining open. More hiv window period is needed to understand how interactions between programs may influence economic outcomes. COVID-19 disruptions do not affect all businesses equally. Some are deemed essential hiv window period remained open, while others were required to close. Some businesses could shift employees to remote work, while others were ill equipped for the transition.

In this section, we explore the cross-industry variation hiv window period its effects. Our results suggest that disparities hiv window period be larger if the pandemic ends up lasting for several months.

Suppose hiv window period most COVID-19 disruptions continue for X months, what is the hystericus globus of your business remaining operational by Dec. Please provide your best guess. As before, we transform this answer into a binary outcome of likely or unlikely to remain open for ease of exposition.

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