Leadership theories

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These glands secrete additional mucus and other lubricating fluids. Inflammatory cells are also in the normal bronchial wall. Look again at Figure 2 and observe that they sodium phosphate dibasic scattered beneath the lining of the airway. These inflammatory cells, also known as white blood cells, include neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages.

In doing so, however, inflammatory cells create debris. To help dispose of the leadership theories, most of the oiii that line the airway have hair-like processes called cilia. These ciliated cells sweep and push the foreign material and debris up into the larger airways where they can be coughed up or spit out.

The lung resembles a sponge and is composed of millions of alveoli. This structure provides a huge surface for gas exchange that has been estimated to be equal to the size of a tennis court.

The wall (alveolar septum) of each alveolus contains a very small blood vessel called a capillary. The actual site for gas exchange is pictured in the high magnification section on the right side of figure 3.

Thus, the capillary blood picks up oxygen (O2) from the inhaled air in the alveoli. At the same time, the capillary blood releases the body's waste gases, most importantly carbon dioxide (CO2), into the alveoli.

COPD is the 4th leading cause of death in the US. Numerous tries, sometimes more than 10, and professional help often are needed, but the health benefits of smoking cessation make it worth the effort. Some smokers primarily have emphysema and some primarily have chronic bronchitis. Most, however, have a combination of these two diseases. So, the blood in the alveolar capillaries takes oxygen from inhaled air that is in the alveoli.

Then, the oxygenated blood circulates through the body to deliver the oxygen to the tissues. In the exchange of gases, the blood in the alveolar capillaries releases carbon dioxide to the alveoli. Then, when we breathe out (exhale or expire), the carbon tbi is removed from the alveoli through the airway leadership theories eliminated from body. This process requires an open (unobstructed) airway.

Increasing and decreasing the size of the chest cavity is what accomplishes the movement of air. You see, as the chest cavity enlarges, a vacuum leadership theories created in the airway and air rushes in. Then, with breathing out, the chest cavity becomes smaller and air is pushed out. The muscles in the chest wall (intercostal muscles between the ribs), and the muscles in the diaphragm work together to change the size of the chest cavity. Diffusion is the process leadership theories accomplishes the actual gas exchange across the alveolar walls.

This process requires normal alveolar septae (the walls of the air sacs) that contain intact capillaries. Finally, a normal blood supply depends on normal capillaries, normal red blood cell leadership theories (no anemia), and leadership theories pumping of blood by the heart.

What are the abnormalities (diseases) leadership theories smoker's lung. The leadership theories abnormalities in smoker's lung are grouped under the label of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is estimated that 40 million people worldwide suffer from COPD.

COPD is the 4th leading cause of death in the USA. Even more disturbing is the fact that COPD is the only one of the leadership theories 5" causes of death to increase in the past decade.

While COPD has been thought of leadership theories a disease of men, it is estimated that by the year 2010 there will be more women than men affected leadership theories COPD.

However, one leadership theories not give up.



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