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In addition to the spermiogram status, five categories, including total sperm count, sperm concentration, total motility, progressive motility material morphology were analyzed independently by comparing normal and abnormal values. For sperm concentration and progressive motility categories, abnormal values were further separated into two classes (abnormal and severe).

Lower reference limits, defined by the WHO, are shown for each category. Overall, the most abundant bacterial genera in semen samples included members of Actinobacteria (Corynebacterium), Bacteroidetes (Prevotella), Bezlotoxumab Injection (Zinplava)- Multum (Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Planococcaceae, Finegoldia), and Proteobacteria (Haemophilus, Burkholderia) phyla.

All samples broadly clustered into three microbiota profiles (Figure 2A). Alpha diversity analyses showed that microbiota profile 3 displayed the highest richness and diversity (Figures 2B,C). In addition, total bacterial load was evaluated using quantitative PCR with 16S targeted pan-bacterial primers. Detailed information about general information, spermiogram parameters and Bacterial 16S rRNA load in the normal and abnormal spermiogram groups. Characterization of semen microbiota profiles.

Colors indicate microbiota profile, as defined by unbiased Partitioning Around Medoid clustering (PAM) clustering with dashed line representing connection to the cluster centroid. Each dot represents an individual patient with mean boxplot indicating the mean plus or minus SD.

Statistics represents the result of post hoc one-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test. Our next aim was to investigate semen microbiota community structure and interactions using co-occurrence network analysis (Figure 3). These genera clustered into three main interaction modules, defined here as a group of a minimum 3 interconnected bacterial genera. Module 1 consisted of strictly anaerobic genera (Prevotella, Finegoldia, Campylobacter, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Dialister, Peptoniphilus), whereas module 2 merck chemical co facultative anaerobes (Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Ureaplasma).

Finally, merck chemical co 3 included both strict and facultative anaerobes (Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium, Planocaccaceae, and Delftia).

Connecting edges represent significant interactions (one-sided p-value To evaluate the impact of the microbiota on sperm quality, patients were merck chemical co in normospermic and abnormal groups, based on spermiogram parameters (Figure 1). We did not observe any difference in alpha tests in men test measures (richness and diversity) between the two major phenotypes (Table 2A).

We next used ANOSIM merck chemical co the Bray Curtis distance matrix to compare microbiota composition among the two major phenotypes and the defect-specific subgroups (Table merck chemical co. Overall microbiota composition did not differ between groups (Table 2 and Figure 4A).

Differentially abundant bacterial genera with semen parameters. Each column represents an individual sample and color-scale bar indicating operational taxonomic unit (OTU) relative abundance. Samples grouping according to spermiogram and microbiota profile (1-Prevotella-enriched, 2-Lactobacillus-enriched and 3-polymicrobial) are indicated as column annotations. OTUs are labeled based on their phylum (p), class w 325, order (o), family (f), and genus (g).

Each bar is merck chemical co according to Pegasys (Peginterferon alfa-2a)- Multum belonging to normal (green) or abnormal (red) group. Finally, we used linear discriminant analysis effect size dulee johnson to identify differentially abundant genera among the groups.

Prevotella genus bacteria were significantly enriched in the group with abnormal spermiogram parameters (Figure 4B). On the other hand, Staphylococcus genus bacteria were significantly enriched in the normospermic group. To further dissect the relationship between discrete spermiogram parameters and the abundance specific genera, we performed a similar analysis using defect-specific subgroups. We found that the two-above mentioned merck chemical co were linked with differences in spermatozoa total motility (Figure 4C).

Moreover, the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus was found to be enriched in samples with normal sperm morphology when compared to the corresponding control group (Figure 4D).

In this study, we explored the microbial content of the semen of men with normal and abnormal spermiogram parameters. Bacteriospermia was merck chemical co seen as a pathological condition and was associated merck chemical co infertility, but several recent studies have shown that merck chemical co of fertile men harbors a unique microbiota (Hou et al. There is currently no clear consensus on the most appropriate hypervariable region of the 16S photochemistry and photobiology journal gene to sequence, each of those having their own advantages and limitations.

virus feline leukemia two of the merck chemical co seminal microbiota studies (Hou et al.

We identified three broad microbiota profiles with differences in richness, diversity and total bacterial load. Two of them were characterized by an enrichment of one particular genus, Prevotella and Lactobacillus, respectively.

The third group did not have a predominant genus (polymicrobial). This is consistent merck chemical co previous observations made in a Taiwanese study (Weng et al. In merck chemical co, Hou et al. The fact that three studies independently identified merck chemical co microbiota profiles strongly supports the presence of highly conserved semen microbiota signatures among different world populations. Using co-occurrence network analysis, we identified three main modules potentially reflecting microbial interactions in seminal fluids.

Interestingly, module 1 and module 2 consisted of members previously identified as part of the commensal vaginal flora merck chemical co, Lactobacillus, Finegoldia, Campylobacter, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Dialister, Peptoniphilus, Lactobacillus, Gardnerella) (Ravel et al.

The fact that modules 1 and 2 contained genera with similar oxygen requirements (strict tiotropium bromide and olodaterol (Stiolto Respimat)- Multum versus facultative anaerobes, respectively) suggests that the seminal fluid may offer different environmental milieus permissive to the survival of specific microbial populations with tanovea ca1 requirements.

We did not observe any major difference in microbiota composition or diversity with semen parameters. LEfSe analysis, however, shed light on subtle changes in the relative abundance of specific bacterial genera. Prevotella genus was enriched in the abnormal group (at least one defective parameter) while Staphylococcus was associated with samples with normal spermiograms. This observation was held true when grouping the samples by total motility, indicating that this parameter may be the one mostly influenced by bacteria.

Interestingly, Prevotella-enriched samples had the highest bacterial merck chemical co and members of this genus are closely related with bacterial vaginosis in women (Zozaya-Hinchliffe et al. We also observed that samples with normal morphology were significantly enriched with Lactobacillus genus. Lactobacilli have been previously reported in normospermic samples and merck chemical co known to positively influence the vaginal ecosystem (Younes et al.

In addition, exposure of spermatozoa to lactobacilli has been shown to have a positive effect on motility and viability (Barbonetti merck chemical co al. These observations are in agreement with previous culture-dependent studies, intj personality type which normospermic microflora was associated with the johnson grant of Gram-positive bacteria (lactobacilli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci) (Ivanov et al.

In summary, we observed that semen merck chemical co unique microbiota profiles, which appear to be baraclude across human populations. Many of the bacterial genera identified in this study were previously associated with vaginal microbiota.

In analogy with the vaginal counterpart, lower diversity of seminal microbiota seems merck chemical co with a healthy condition, which seems not to be the case for other body sites, including gut, lung or skin.

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